Study of Environment is being carried out for very long time, but after many years of research the word Biodiversity was introduced. Walter Rosen in the years 1985 – 86 have coined the word Biodiversity, which is combination of two words, “Biological Diversity”. This word is used for his presentation as title, where he was about to deliver his speech to discuss about biological diversity. Later many scientists followed the same word and carried researches in the name of Biodiversity. One of the scientist, Wilson in the year 1999 have stated that there exists more than five million species, of which only 1.5 million have been identified. As the new technology became helping hand for scientists, approximately 13000 species are identified every year.
Biodiversity is defined as collection of different species available on earth and their genetic variations among those species. It is simply the sum of different life forms on the planet which includes animals, plants and other natural microbiological organisms that directly or indirectly help human civilizations for developments and habitations. Study says there are 40,000 species of animals, plants and microorganisms are used by humans everyday.
Impact of Biodiversity on ecosystem is huge as they help in many unknown ways. For example, huge number of plants when protected can provide sustainability for few other species that depend on plants. The same is with other species on the earth.
Types of Biodiversity
- Genetic Diversity
- Species Diversity
- Ecosystem Diversity
1. Genetic Diversity
Genetic diversity is measure of one particular species in different forms due to enormous combinations of mutations in genes. Usually plants and animals species differ from one another due to genetic combinations. Similarly humans are differ from one another that helps breeding individual species population. We have large number of plants, animals, humans, microorganisms and many other species on earth, resulting healthy breeding. If the individual species breeding count is reduced, that degrades dissimilarities in species and occurs in-breeding. Modern biotechnology helps in developing better breedings for individual species by manipulating genes. This results in healthy breeds of animals for domestic use, good productive plants, and also in discovering medicines and products of different industries which take micro species as raw materials.
2. Species Diversity
Unlike genetic diversity, mutations among different species is what we call as species diversity. It is classification of similar species in any particular region and mutate in producing lineage species. Natural ecosystem and agriculture ecosystem are two different forms where natural includes forests and agriculture involves plantations. It is pretty clear that tropical forests distributed on the earth will have rich species when compared to man made plantations in agriculture. When it comes to species diversity, huge number of people depend on forest ecosystem as the amount of non-wood products we get are greater than that of agricultural products. Regions that show richness in species are considered to be the hotspots and these hotspots are to be conserved for better ecosystems.
3. Ecosystem or Community Diversity
Depending on the habitations and environments, there exists variety of community diversities on earth. Ecosystem diversity is considered as the amount of richness(Number of individual species found at any given region) and evenness(Number of different types of species found at any given region) of any particular species available at given region or area. This area may vary from small ponds to large countries. Ecosystems are distinctive and includes wetlands, forests, deserts, freshwater which further distinction in their flora and fauna.
Each of these types help in measuring biodiversity species richness in three different mathematical ways. Alpha diversity means number of species found one particular region/area, Beta diversity refers change in species with change in environment, and Gamma diversity is overall diversity that is applied to large areas by calculating Alpha and Beta measurements.
Why do we protect biodiversity? Value of biodiversity can be associated with environmental, consumptive, productive use, social, aesthetic, optional, ethical and moral values. The one who takes a dig through these values will know how to use these ecosystems.