Hindustan! Although a developing country, India is famous worldwide for a lot of many things and the variation of its natural vegetation is one of them. From desert to rainforest, from mountains to oceans, India has always been considered one of the most diversified countries in this whole world, and that is not just because of the people living in the sub-continent. And for such reference, we may quote the Vishnu Purana which says that “The country which lies to the north of the ocean and south of the snow covered mountain is called Bharatvarsa.” Depending on such diverse natural vegetation, India has a diverse climate and weather. Surprisingly, India is home to at least 325 globally threatened flora, fauna, bird, reptiles and fish species. Owing to such geographical diversification, India is an eye-candy for nature lovers and cultural enthusiasts as well. How well do you know about the diverse natural vegetation? Or you do not know at all? For such situation, we are here to help. Have a look.
Natural Vegetation of India
Before we dig into the details of the Natural vegetation of India, let us have some factual treats about the Biodiversity of India. Here it goes–
- Although India is just 2% of the world land mass, it contains 8% of the world’s biodiversity.
- More than 16 types of forests can be found in the natural vegetation of India, although it has been widely classified into six.
- 11% of plant biodiversity is found in the natural vegetation of India.
- More than thousands of species of plants, reptiles, fish, mammals can be found in India.
- India is one of the twelve mega-diverse nations of the world.
Types of Natural Vegetation
India is home to six types of natural vegetation; those are as follows
Tropical Evergreen Rain-Forests
This type of natural vegetation can be seen in areas where the rainfall is more than 200cm. They are mainly found on the slopes of the Western Ghats, Tarai area of Himalaya, and the north-east region of India. The trees in these areas are dense, and they never shed their leaves due to lack of sub-soil water. Sishu, Rosewood, Bamboos, Mahogany are some of the trees of this region.
This kind of natural vegetation can be found in the areas where the rainfall is between 100-200 cm i.e. the lower slopes of Himalaya, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra shows the signs of this kind of vegetation. The trees of this region shed their leaves during dry summer and dry winter.
Dry Deciduous Forests and Scrubs
Where the rainfall is low i.e. ranges between 50 to 100 cm, this kind of natural vegetation can be seen. Rajasthan, Central Deccan-plateau, Punjab, Haryana are home to this kind of natural vegetation. Dwarf deciduous trees and long grasses grow in this region.
Semi-deserts and Desert vegetation
This kind of natural vegetation can be noticed in the areas where the rainfall is less than 50 cm. Thorny bushes, Babul, Indian wild Date trees can be found in this region. Mainly parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Punjab face this kind of vegetation.
This kind of natural vegetation can be noticed in the coast and edges of deltas i.e. deltas of Ganges, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. Mangrove forests grow in this region where tidal waves play a significant role. In West Bengal, this kind of vegetative forest is known as ‘Sundarban’.
Mountain Forest vegetation defers according to the altitude, varying rainfall and temperature along the slopes of Mountains. They can be classified into three types– 1. Up to the height of 1500 metres, evergreen trees such as Sal, Teak, Bamboo, etc. grow in this region. 2. Between 1500 metres to 3500 metres; Pine, Oak, Maple, Deodar trees are mainly seen. 3. In higher altitude than 3500 metres, rhododendrons and junipers are found. Beyond these vegetation-belts, alpine grasslands appear up to the snowfield.
Natural Vegetation of India Map
Fascinating, isn’t it? How can only a sub-continent of Asia hold such diversification? Such unity in diversity can only be seen in India and as it is said, “Unity in diversity is the strength of a country to exist.”
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