The Mughal period can be called second classical age of northern India. In its cultural development, the Indian traditions were amalgamated with the Turko-Iranian culture that was brought to the country by the Mughals. The Mughal rulers of India kept close contacts with Iran. Here is Mughals Family Tree.
Mughals Family Tree
Babur (1526 A.D -1530 A.D.)
Babur Mughal Family Tree
- Babar, founder of the Mughal dynasty, was the king of Kabul.
- He was invited to India to fight against Ibrahim Lodhi.
- He confronted and defeated Lodi in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat.
- Before his death, he had made himself the master of the Punjab, Delhi and the Gangetic plains as far as Bihar.
- He wrote Tuzuk-i-Babari, his autobiography in the Turkish. It contained a lively description of India.
Humayun (1530 A.D.-1556 A.D.)
- He inherited a vast unconsolidated empire and an empty treasury.
- He had to deal with the growing power of the Afghan Sher Shah from the east, who had Bihar and Bengal under him.
- Sher Shah defeated Humayun in Kannauj (1540 A.D.) and Humayun passed the next 12 years in exile.
- In 1555, after Sher Shah’s death, Humayun regained the throne from his weak successor.
- Akbar, his son, succeeded him in 1556 A.D. and consolidated the empire.
Akbar (1556 A.D.-1605 A.D.)
- He was only 13 when he came to the throne.
- His first conflict was with Hemu, a general of Adil Shah, under whom the Afghan resistance had regrouped.
- Throughout Indian history, king Hemu was the sole Hindu King to rule Delhi. At the second and Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra.
- Akbar annexed Malwa and brought a major part of Rajasthan under his control. He built the Buland Darwaza after his successful campaign in Gujarat.
- By adopting a policy of religious tolerance towards his subjects, Akbar strengthened the Mughal state.
- He abolished the pilgrimage tax (1663 A.D.), the Jizya,(1564 A.D.) and stopped the forcible conversion of prisoners of war.
- After his success in military activities and administration, Akbar’s insatiable quest and his personal need led him to build the Ibadat-Khana-hall of prayer (1575 A.D.)
- Because of his discerning mind, broad vision and humanitarian outlook, he is regarded as one of the great rulers in Indian history.
Jahangir (1605 A.D.-1627 A.D.)
- After his death, Akbar’s son Salim succeeded as Jahangir.
- He strengthened his control over Bengal and his four successive campaigns forced Amar Singh of Mewar to accept his suzerainty.
- The Mughal empire became more vulnerable to attacks from central and western Asia.
- Towards the end of his reign, he had to deal with the rebellion of his son Shah Jahan.
- He was very famous for his sense of Justice. It was at about this time (1600 A.D.) that the East India Company was established in India.
- An important aspects of his reign was the active interest taken by Nur Jahan, his queen, in matters of the state. She ruled the empire when he was ill.
Mughal Dynasty III (1627 A.D.-1857 A.D.)
Shah Jahan (1628 A.D.-1658 A.D.)
- On his succession to the throne, the first thing he had to face was revolts in Bundelkhand and the Deccan.
- The former he put down easily but the latter controlled with difficulty.
- Meanwhile, the Marathas also emerged as a major threat to the authority of the Mughals.
- The famous peacock throne and the Red fort construction completed by him.
- The world famous Taj Mahal also built in his beautiful wife’s memory.
- His failing health started a war of succession amongst his four sons in 1657.
Aurangazib (1658 A.D.-1707 A.D.)
- Aurangzeb, the third son of Shah Jahan, treacherously emerged victorious by killing his brothers and imprisoning his father in Agra Fort till his death.
- He ruled for almost 50 years. During his long reign, the Mughal empire reached its territorial climax.
- At its height, it stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindu Kush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
- He was orthodox in his outlook and kept himself within the narrow confines of Islamic law.
- He discarded Akbar’s secular principles and re-introduced Jizya with severity and destroyed many temples.
- This did not make Muslims more loyal to the Islamic state. In addition, the Hindus alienated.
- Most of his time spent in trying to put down revolts in different parts of his empire.
- While the empire was rent by strife and revolt, the new Maratha power was growing and consolidating itself in western India.
- Shivaji, the Maratha King, stopped Aurangzeb’s mission of expanding towards the south.
- however , after Shivaji’s death, Aurangzeb accomplished his southward expansion. Apart from him, no one else expect the Britishers held India under a single rule.
- Aurangzeb, the last of the grand Mughals,tried to put take clock back and in this attempt, broke up the empire.
- After his death, the Mughal empire collapsed with internal conflicts among the successors and reduced to the area around Delhi.
- The various provinces declared their independence and the Marathas under the leadership of the Peshwas, gradually extended their hold in north India.
- Foreign invasion of Nadir Shah Abdali in 1729 A.D. and Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1747-1761 A.D further weakened the empire.
- The last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar imprisoned by the Britishers after the 1857 mutiny.