Himalayan Rivers of India, the article provides a brief description about them. These rivers in Himalaya are very long. These Himalayas rivers are perennial because they derive their water from snowmelt and rainfall. But, the seasonal variation of the water-flow is a typical feature of this Himalayan river system. Many important rivers had their origin in the Himalayas. The Himalayan rivers provide a new dimension to the scenic beauty of Himalayan region. In those areas, the Himalayan river system is the major source of life. These Himalayas rivers enable the formation of irrigation process and forest belt in those regions. Let us learn about the Himalayan river systems in detail.
Himalayan Rivers Systems
The himalayan rivers contain 3 systems.
The Indus System
This himalayan river system consists of the river Indus and the 5 tributaries of this river – Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Jhelum and Chenab. Near the Mansarovar lake, the Indus originates in Tibet at a height of 5,180 metres and enters the territory of India in jammu and Kashmir.
The Indus flows through Gilgit, Baltistan and Ladakh and finally comes out of the hills at Attock. It receives its himalayan tributaries like Gilgit, Nubra, Shigar, Shyok, Dras, Zaskar, Gartang and Hunza in J&K. Few major tributaries below Attock are Zhob-Gomal, Tochi and the Kurram.
The collective movement of the Punjab tributaries of Indus – Jhelum, Chenab, ravi, Beas and Sutlej form Panjnad and it falls into the mainstream above Mithankot.
The Indus flows in the south-west direction across Pakistan and reaches the Arabian Sea at east of Karachi. Indus has a huge network of canal systems.
Let us take a look at the tributaries of the Indus system.
For the Indus river, Jhelum is a major tributary. Its origin is at the spring at Verinag that is located in the south-eastern part of the Kashmir valley.
From the Wular lake, it enters a canyon cut by itself in Pir Pinjal Range. In Pakistan, between mangla and Muzaffarabad, it roughly runs along the border of India and Pakistan and joins the Chenab. The length of this tributary is 400 kms.
In sanskrit, it is known as Asikini. Its origin is due to the confluence of Bhaga and Chandra in H.P. and so it is known as Chandra Bhaga in H.P.
The Chenab flows towards the north-west direction and for some distance, it runs parallel to Pir Pinjal. The length of this tributary is 1,180 kms.
Its origin is the Rohtang Pass which is located in the Kullu hills of H.P. It flows between the Dhauladhar and Pir Pinjal ranges. The sanskrit of Ravi is Iravati. This tributary joins Chenab and enters the Panchnad. The length of the Ravi is 725 kms.
The sanskrit name of the Beas is Vipasha. The point of origin of the Beas is the Rohtang Pass’s southern end at an altitude of 4,000 m. The Beas makes the highly popular Kullu Valley. The length of this tributary is 470 kms.
Shatdru is the sanskrit name of this tributary. The origin point of this river is the Rakas lake at a height of 4,555 m in Tibet. The Sutlej flows for 1,050 kms. It feeds the canal system of Sirhind, Harike and Bhakra Nangal Project.
At once, this was a major tributary of the Indus. It is now lost in the Thar sands. It is believed that it flows underground and joins Ganga when it meets Yamuna at Prayag, Allahabad. Triveni Sangamam is the place where these 3 rivers meet.
The origin of Ganga is the Himalayas. It is one of the major himalayan rivers. After its headstreams, Bhagirathi and Alaknanda gets united at Devaprayag, this river gets its name.
This plain’s important right bank tributaries include the Sone and the Yamuna apart from the small streams of the Punpun and the Tons.
The Ganga receives numerous tributaries on its left bank which include the Mahananda, Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghra, Gomati and Ramganga.
The total length of Ganga is shared by West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. The length of this river is 2,525 kms. Let us look at some of the major tributaries of the Ganga river.
The Yamuna System
It is the longest and most important tributary of the Ganga. Its origin point is the Yamunotri glacier on Banderpunch range.
The basin area of Yamuna is 3,66,223 sq.kms. Sangam is known as the confluence of yamuna and Ganga. On the banks of Yamuna, a major city known as Agra is situated.
This river drains the areas of Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Uttranchal.
The origin point of this river is near Mhow in Malwa Plateau of Madhya Pradesh state. This river flows in the northern direction till Kota in Rajasthan. The length of this river is 960 kms.
This river is known by different names like the Sharda in Chauka and Kheri and Pilibhit districts. It runs along the boundary of India and Nepal. This river leaves the Himalayas at Baramdeo.
Ramganga is the left bank tributary of Ganga. The origin point of the Ramganga is near Nainital. It has a length of 690 kms. The confluence of the Ramganga and the Ganga is near Farrukhabad.
This is the only tributary of Ganga river whose origin is in the plains but not in the hills. The confluence of the Gomti and the Ganga is down Varanasi.
The origin point of this river is east of Ganga and it rises parallel to Ganga in U.P. The confluence of the Ghaghra and the Ganga is near Chapra. The length of the Ghaghra is 1,080 kms.
In Nepal, this river is known as Narayani. This river drains the Nepal’s central region. Gandak rises near the Sino-Nepal border.
The length of the Gandak is 425 kms. The confluence of the Gandak and the Ganga is near Bankipur in Bihar.
This river drains the eastern part of Nepal. In a large number of channels, this river enters the Saharsa district of Bihar state. The confluence of the Kosi and the Ganga is Keragola.
This river occupies the Chhotanagpur plateau’s eastern regions where it flows through a rift valley or a graben.
The main tributary of the Damodar river is the Barakar. Finally, Damodar joins the Hooghly. Damodar river causes mass destruction of floods and so it is called as the Sorrow of Bengal.
Rising in the Darjiling hills, this is another tributary of the Ganga river. This river joins the Ganga in West Bengal.
This river originates in the Amarkantak plateau and is a huge south bank tributary of the Ganga river. At the edge of plateau, it forms a series of waterfalls and reaches Arrah to join Ganga.
The Brahmaputra river forms this river system. The length of this river system is 2,700 kms. Through Tibet, it flows eastwards and is called as Tsang-Po.
As it turns southwards in the state of Arunachal Pradesh and enters Assam, it is known as Brahmaputra. It carries a huge amount of sediment as it consists of a long mountain stage.
It slows down abruptly when it enters the plains. While slowing down, it deposits its load and this causes it to split into two to three channels forming an island in its course.
The tributaries of Brahmaputra are Dihing, Buri, Dhansiri, Manas, Barali, Subansiri and Tista.
The above mentioned information summarises the rivers in Himalayan and their tributaries.
All the Himalayan rivers are explained properly along with their features without leaving anything.
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