Geographical Features Of India – It is by and large said that history has two eyes, one is sequence and the other is topography. As it were time and space are huge calculates deciding the verifiable procedure. In specific, a nation’s geology to a great extent decides its authentic occasions. The historical backdrop of India is additionally impacted by its topography. Henceforth, the investigation of Indian land highlights adds to the better comprehension of its history.
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF INDIA
In the words of Richard Hakluyt, “Geography and chronology are the sun and the moon, the right eye of history.” it follows that the evolution of Indian history and culture cannot be properly understood without a proper appreciations of the geographical factors involved in their development.
The historical boundaries of India have not always coincided with its geographical boundaries. The Afghanistan and Baluchistan are geographically a part of the great Iranian plateau, they have been closely associated with India for many centuries from the historical point of view. The mauryan kings ruled over some portions of them. The Bactrian Greeks, the Parthians, the Sakas and the Kushans of Indian history ruled over these regions. Under Sultan Mahmud, Muhammad Ghori and the Mughals, these regions were a part of India. In the days of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the Punjab, Sindh and Kashmir became a part of Afghanistan. Burma was not a part of India till the three Burmese Wars were fought during the 19th century and in 1937. Burma was separated from India. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have on different occasions come under the control of Indian rulers. Ceylon was ruled by an Indian coloniser named Vijayasimha. Although the British made of British India, Ceylon was always kept separate directly under the British Government.
Physical Features Of India
Although India has a very long coast-line, she has very few natural harbours as the coast-line is comparatively straight. It is true that the Dravidians of early times navigated the seas for trade and commerce. The Truth that the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a detailed account of the maritime trade of India in the first century A.D.
Indians also had their colonies in the Far East.It is also true that the Marathas in the 17th and 18th centuries built up a respectable navy. However, it cannot be denied that the Muslim rulers of India did not pay adequate attention to the development of their naval power and the result was that the foreigners like the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English were able to have their establishments in India and ultimately the British were able to establish their Empire in the whole of India.
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the South, it covers today area of 3,052,400sq-kilometres. Its land mass measures about 3200 kilometres from North to South and about the same from East to West. the northern frontier is about 2400 kilometres.
Besides its vastness, there is variety in India. The mountains in the North, North-West and North-East have lent the areas contiguous to them a distinctiveness. The peninsular part of India presents a picture strikingly different from that of the region North of the Vindhyas. There are differences in altitudes, climate, temperature, flora and fauna. There are few countries which possess such a variety. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature,and physical configuration
There is the scorching heat of rajasthan and the biting cold of himalayas. Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 centimetres per year.
Geographically, India can be divided into four clear-cut regions
- The first region consists of the northern mountains with their Western and Eastern ranges and their slopes comprising the present areas of Kashmir, Kamagra, Tehri, Kumaon, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. This region covers an area which is about 1500 miles long and 150 to 200 miles broad.
- The second region comprises the Northern plains irrigated by the Indus and Ganga system of rivers. They are famous for their rich soil and fertility.
- The third region consists of the plateau of central India and the Deccan. The Narmada and the Tapti rivers flow from the East to the West and the other rivers of this region flow from the West to the East. the rivers become dry and un-navigable during the dry season. The Vindhyas and the Satpuras separate Northern India from the Deccan.
- The fourth region consists of the long but narrow strip of plains situated between the sea and the Eastern and Western Ghats. These plains are about 1000 miles long. In the west, they are between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. In the East, the plains are between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats and the coromandel coast lies in these plains.
According to ancient literature, there were five divisions of India
- Uttarapatha or Audichya (North and North-West India)
- Madhyadesh (Indo-Gangetic plain)
- Aparanta or Pratichya (Western India)
- Prachya or Purvasha (Eastern India) and
- Dakshinapatha (The Deccan).
It is worthy of notice that the connotation of these terms varied from time to time. Hence, a strict conformity to fixed geographical limits is not synonymous with Aryavarta to denote the entire stretch lying between the Himalayas in the North and the Vindhyas in the south. So, the term Dakshinapatha was applied in a wider and narrower sense. According to the wider connotation, it was coextensive with the whole land south of the Vindhyas including Tamilakam or the Tamil countries of the far south. The narrower sense, it was identified with only the upper limit of the Deccan, north of the Krishna.
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