Unity of India is well-known word for Indians. It is described as “the epitome of the world”. From geographical point of view, there are endless varieties. India has winding chains of inaccessible lofty mountains, covered with eternal snow and flat plains, “arid deserts almost untouched by the feet of men, as well as fertile river valleys maintaining a population of over 3000 persons to a mile.” every kind of climate is met within India.
We have the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the extreme cold of the Himalayas. We have the dry, rocky table-land of the Deccan and also the luxuriance of Bengal and Malabar. It has all the three types of climates. She has the world’s highest record of rainfall. It varies from 418 inches at Cherrapunji to less than 3 inches a year in Sindh and Rajasthan. There is a variety of altitudes, temperature and moisture. India possesses most of the types of flora and fauna known to natural sciences.
Unity of India – Diversified religious Races
India has a variety of races and that is why V.A. Smith calls India an “ethnological museum”. Population is “far too mixed to admit of the disentangling of distinct races.” People belonging to different races live in here. The neolithic and paleolithic men inhabited this country in the remote past. The Dravidian blood flows in the veins of a large number of people in the south that proves the Unity of India.
The Iranians might have come to India during the period of Achaemenid rule in the North-West. The Greeks who accompanied Alexander, the Great also settled here. The Parthians and the sakas who ruled in the North-Western and Western India for a long period, ultimately merged themselves in Indian population.
Foreign blood into India
After the Sakas came the Kushans. The Huns who came in the Time of the Guptas, also introduced foreign blood into Indian population. It is believed that some of the Rajput clans as well as the Jats, Gujjars and allied tribes descended either from the Huns or from allied tribes. The Muslims who invaded and settled in India, belonged to various races like the Arabs, Turks, Persians, Afghans and Mongols. A large number of Parsis fled from Persia and the coast of Bombay is now inhabited by them. The Moplahs of Malabar are the product of unions between Muslim merchants from Arabia and women of the West coast.
About the diversity of races in India, a modern writer says, “Everybody looks different and dresses differently. Complexions range from white to black coffee; noses from Biblical spurs to Mongolian pugs; some people are very tall, others very short. Dress, like a botanical classification, reveals the exact identity of the bearer his other religion, caste,region and occupation. The variety is endless”.
Unity of India – Different Languages
The Constitution of India recognizes 14 languages. Each one of the linguistic groups has its own literature. The languages and dialects used in India exceed 200 in number. The great majority of the people speak languages which can be reduced to two main families : the Aryan and Dravidian. All the principal languages of Northern and Western India, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati and many others descended from Prakrits or closely akin to the later literary forms of Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and a few other South Indian languages belong to the Dravidian group. Munda languages are spoken by people called Kolarians and they are distinctly different from Aryan and Dravidian languages. They are perhaps older than Dravidian languages. However, Munda languages have ceased to be of any influence on Indian culture. At any cost everyone of us believe in Unity of India.
Unity of India – Different Religions
India also presents the largest variety in the religious field. We have in this country Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. There are also local religions like Jainism and Sikhism. Representatives of Zoroastrianism are also found in India. The primitive tribes have also their own peculiar cults.
The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural differences vary from state to state. Financially, we find people who are very rich and others who are very poor.
The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains of culture and modes of life create a complex diversity of India. It is rightly said by Dr. Radha Kumud Mookerji that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and cultures, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems.
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