Biosphere reserves in India are protected natural places which are kept as an inhabitant for wild animals and birds. These reserves are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between man and nature. UNESCO covers the protection of these designated areas worldwide.
Biosphere Reserves in India
The major work of any biosphere reserve is to conserve diversity and integrity of plants, animals and micro-organisms. They also promote the conservation of environmental aspects and provide awareness and education to the world for doing the same.There are 651 Biosphere Reserve in 120 countries including 15 trans-boundary sites.
In India, there are 18 Biosphere reserves established by Indian Government. These areas are developed with specialized ecosystem with flora and fauna that require adequate protection and proper nurturing.
Not only animals or birds but rare category plants and other flora fauna is also been protected here. Our Indian forests are full of various varieties of natural faunas, which are not only rare but even unique.
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
This reserve was established in 1986. It covers three states of India namely, Tamil nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. The basic location of this Biosphere Reserve is part of waynad, nagarhole, Nilambur, Bandipur, Madumalai, Silent valley and Siruvani hills. The total area of this reserve is 5520 sq.km. The main fauna of this place is Nilgiri Tahr and lion-tailed macaque.
Nanda Devi National Park & Biosphere Reserve
This Biosphere Reserve has a total area of 5860 sq.km. In the state of Uttarakhand, this Biosphere Reserve covers the parts of Chamoli district, Pithoragarh district and Bageshwar district. The major fauna is snow leopard and Himalayan black bear. This Biosphere Reserve was established in the year 1988.
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve
In the west Garo hills of Meghalaya, this beautiful reserve is situated. This reserve has a total area of 820 sq.km. It was established in the year 1988. The Red panda is the main attraction of this Biosphere Reserve. It is only found here in the whole Asia so it needs high protection.
Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve
Preserving the rare species of Saltwater Crocodile, this Biosphere Reserve is located in Andaman Nicobar Island. This Island has a total area of 885 sq.km. It was established in the initials of 1989.
Gulf of Mannar
Covering a biggest area of 10500 sq.km in the Tamilnadu state coast, this Biosphere Reserve has specialty of preserving Sea cow or Dugong. The Indian part of Gulf of Mannar is extended from Rameshwaram in North to kanyakumari in South of Tamilnadu and Srilanka. This Biosphere Reserve was established in February, 1989 for special preservance of Dugong because these Sea cows are now very rare in numbers and definitely needs conservation.
Manas Biosphere Reserve
This Biosphere Reserve, established in 1989, covers a part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Berpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and Darrang districts of Assam. It has a total area of around 2837 sq. km. This place is located in the East Himalayas. The major fauna of Manas Biosphere Reserve are Red panda and the rare Golden Langur.
This is most searched and visited place for Tiger lovers. This Biosphere Reserve is famous for its only fauna Royal Bengal Tigers. Covering a huge area of 9630 sq.km in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, this Biosphere Reserve covers a big Ganga and Brahmaputra delta.
Established in the year of 1994, Simlipal Biosphere Reserve is famous for the elegant collection of Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger and Asian Elephants. It is located in the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha State. The Biosphere Reserve is spread over an area of 4374 sq.km. The Asian Elephants are the major attraction.
This Biosphere Reserve is quite small covering area of 765 sq.km. This is conserving their key fauna Golden Langur since 1997. It is situated in some part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam.
Dehang Dibang Biosphere Reserve
it is constituted in the year 1998. This reserve is rich in wildlife. Rare mammals such as Mishmi takin and musk deer (with two rare species) are the major fauna of this Biosphere Reserve. This Biosphere Reserve with an area of 5112 sq.km spreads over 3 districts of Arunachal Pradesh namely Dibang valley, Upper Siang and West Siang.
This is the most beautiful place in Madhya Pradesh. It is located within areas of Hoshangabad, Betul and Chhindwara districts. This place is not only a Biosphere Reserve but also famous as a tourist spot with greenery spread around. This reserve’s total area is 4981 sq.km. The forests are dominated by Teak and its key species include Giant squirrel and flying squirrel with other large mammals like tiger, leopard, wild boar, chital deer and Nilgai. It was established in 1999.
Khanchendzonga Biosphere Reserve
This Biosphere Reserve is located in the East Himalayan area covering parts of Kanchenjunga mountain range in Sikkim state. Established in 2000, this Biosphere Reserve is famous for conserving Snow leopard and Red Panda. The total area of this reserve is 2620 sq.km.
Agastyamalai Biosphere Reserve
It was established in the year 2001 and includes 3500sq.km of which 1828 sq.km. is in Kerala and 1672 sq.km. is in Tamilnadu. The key fauna of this Biosphere Reserve is Nlgiri Tahr and Elephants.
Achanakamar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve
This is a Biosphere Reserve in India that extends across the boundaries of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states covering a total area of 383, 551 hectares. The major portion of this Biosphere Reserve is in Anuppur and Dindori district but the major part of approx. 68% comes under Bilaspur district. This Biosphere Reserve is a huge reservoir of natural vegetation and faunal compositions. Diverse population of wildlife can be found here. Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, sarus crane, white-rumped vultures are the major faunas of this reserve.
Kachchh or Great Rann of Kutch
This famous reserve of Gujarat is famous for its desert. Located in the Kutch, Rajkot Patan and Surendranagar districts of Gujarat, this reserve covers a total area of 12454 sq.km and famous for its conservation of Indian wild ass. It was started in the year 2008.
Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve
This Biosphere Reserve is located in the western Himalayas region. Cold Desert has an area of 7770 sq.km which includes Pin valley national park, Chnadratal, Sarchu and Kibber wildlife sancturary. The key fauna is Snow Leopard.
This Biosphere Reserve is situated in the hill ranges os Seshachalam covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa Districts of Andhra Pradesh. The total area of reserve is 4755 sq.km. Established in the year 2010, they basically look forward to conserve the rare species of Slender Loris.
The famous diamond harbor of Madhya Pradesh is designated as Biosphere Reserve on 25th August 2011. This is also a national park which is declared as one of the major Tiger reserves in India. Their main aim is to protect Tiger population. Other than Tiger they also look after Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar and Sloth bear as key fauna of this reserve.
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