Ancient Indian History is a treasure of astonishing facts about the prehistoric people and their lifestyle. People originated from different parts of the world have somehow got a way to India and as the scientists have evidences of those people and their habitations. Aryans also comes under those people those hail from other parts of the world to India.
Who are Aryans?
During the second millenium B.C, a series of migrations have taken place by the Indo-European-speaking seminomads. These preliterate pastoralists known as Aryans spoke an early form of Sanskrit. Which has very close philological resemblances to various other Indo-European languages. (Like Ancient Latin and Greek and Avestan in Iran.) The term Aryan means “pure”. It implied the conscious attempts of the invaders continuing their tribal roots and identity while maintaining social distance from previous inhabitants.
Vedic Aryans – History of Ancient India
Evolution of Aryans in Ancient Indian History
Archaeology haven’t provided the proof of the Aryans’ identity, the spread and evolution of culture across Indo-Gangetic plain was undisputed. Modern knowledge of earlier stages of this process rests on sacred texts:
- The 4 Vedas (collections of liturgy, prayers and hymns)
- The Puranas (traditional historical-mythic works)
- The Upanishads (commentaries on philosophical treatises and vedic rituals)
- The Brahmanas.
The holiness accorded to these texts and the mode of their conservation over several millennia almost make them component of the living Hindu tradition.
The sacred texts provide information in joining together Aryan activities and beliefs. Aryans, termed as pantheistic people followed the leader of their clan. They used to involve in wars with other alien ethnic groups or with each other. Their skills in utilizing chariots drawn by the horses, knowledge of mathematics, astronomy gave them a technological and military advantage. That has led others to accept their religious beliefs and social customs. By 1000 B.C, the Aryan culture had extended over the most of north India. And in this process acquired from various other cultures that anti-ceded it.
The Aryans had brought a new language with them, a new group of anthropomorphic gods, a patriarchal and patrilineal family system. Social order built on the philosophical and religious rationales of Varnashramadharma. Translation into English is not easy but Varnashramadharma concept considered as bedrock of the Indian traditional social organization.
It was constructed on 3 fundamental ideas: Dharma, Ashrama and Varna. Underlying belief is that the present happiness and the salvation in the future are subject to chance upon one’s moral and ethical conduct. So, both individuals and society are expected to follow a different but righteous path that is considered correct for everyone based on one’s station in life, age and birth. The basic unit of Aryan society was patriarchal and extended family. Agriculture and permanent settlements have led to trade and various occupational differentiation.
Ancient History of Vedic Aryans
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- The History of Ancient India
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- The Prehistoric People In India